• Reagents

The reagents offered are used for biotechnology and nanotechnology studies for the most part but may be used for other areas of study as well. The solid form and organic solution of the organic soluble nanomaterials in particular can be used for studies in solar cells, lasing, and other applications.

       Nanomaterials

          Nanomaterial (NMs) are comparable in size to a virus (20–450 nm) or to biomolecules such as a protein (5–50 nm), a DNA (2 nm in width and about 10–100 nm in length).  they are bigger than a water molecule but smaller than a bacterium  (1 um).  NMs possess unique mechanical, electrical, and optical properties that are controlled by the chemical composition and the size. They can be modified or engineered for various biological as well                                                                                              as non-biological applications.

         The nanomaterials offered consists of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs),                                                                                     quantum dots (QDs), and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These are available                                                                                                 in water soluble form as well as in organic soluble form as solid or in                                                                                              organic solutions. The water soluble nanomaterials are used in medicine,                                                                                        food, cosmetics and skin care, agriculture, pet care, and many more.                                                                                                    The water soluble NMs are biocompatible although some may exhibit                                                                                             toxicity to cells and animals. The use of PPE is adviced when handling any form of NMs.


        Gold nanoparticles       

          The gold nanoparticles are modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) which introduces functional groups, either carboxyl (-COOH) or amine (-NH2), on the surface. The AuNPs are available in 15 to 100 nm diameter.  The AuNPs are also available in 6 nm diameter with dodecanethiol surface ligands. These are either in solid form or dissolved in organic solvent such as chloroform, toluene, hexane, etc. The water soluble gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are coated with a monolayer of polyethylene glycol, PEG. The PEG coating offers either a carboxyl (-COOH) or an amine (-NH2) functional group. These can be autoclaved at 121°C for 30 min without causing any damage.The AuNPs can be attached to protein, peptide, nucleic acid, and other molecules through the respective functional groups. It is advisable to remove the as received buffer from the biomolecule through a buffer exchange before proceeding with attachment to the AuNPs.


         Quantum dots

           Quantum dots (QDs) are made of semiconductor atoms from groups II and VI or groups III and V (i.e. InP) or other combinations.    QDs contain between 200–10,000 atoms and can vary in                                                                                             size between 2-100 nm in diameter. They  have unique size dependent                                                                                            electronic and optical properties exhibited as high brightness and stable                                                                            fluorescence. The QDs are brighter more stable and resistant to photo-                                                                                     bleaching unlike the organic dyes. The large surface area to volume ratio                                                                                            that is imparted by the small size makes QDs easy to functionalize with                                                                                        different biomolecules for various applications.

            The QDs are available as cadmium-free (InP/ZnS or ZnSe/ZnS) or containing heavy metals cadmium or lead  (CdS/ZnS, CdSe/ZnS, or PbS). The QDs are  either water soluble or organic solvent soluble which are available in solid form or dissolved in organic solvent such as chloroform, toluene, hexane, etc.


          Silver nanoparticles

            The silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are available in water soluble and in organic soluble form at 7 nm diameter. The water soluble form are coated with a monolayer of dodecanethiol and a monolayer of amphiphilic coating that introduces carboxylic functional group that has a thickness of ~4 m. The zeta potential is between -30mV to -50mV while the hydrodynamic size is ~8-10 nm larger than the inorganic core size under TEM. These are very stable in most buffer solutions at pH of 4-10.  The AgNP can survive the autoclave at 121°C for 30 min and also survive lyophilization. The water soluble AgNP can be conjugated to protein, peptide and other amine containing molecules by following standard conjugation protocol.

          The organic soluble AgNP is available in solud form or in organic solvent. This AgNP has dodecanethiol surface ligands. The hydrodynamic size of the nanoparticles is about 8-10 nm larger than their inorganic core size measured by TEM. The solid AgNP can be dissolved in most organic solvents such as chloroform, hexane, or toluene.


      Auxiliary Reagents

           NP BlockBuffer(ID# NPB)

           The nanoparticle block (NPB) buffer prevents the non-specific adsorption (NSA) of nanoparticles (NPs) on cells. This contains BSA, PVP (10k and 40k mix), triton 100X, and tween 20 in borate buffer, pH8.0. After exposing the cells to the nanoparticles, place 200 uL or more to submerge all cells in the NPB. Mix well using a vortex at low speed in order not to disrupt the cells.  Wash with three times with PBS or appropriate buffer for the cells. Repeat 2x for persistent NSA of NPs.


           AgNP Detection Kit(ID# AgNPD)

           This kit is recommended for the qualitative detection of silver nanoparticles in the high nM-uM range in solution or on cells (or bacteria).

In solution: Mix 200 uL of solution A with 100 uL of the AgNP (OD = 1).  Swirl gently until the gray AgNP turns almost colorless. Add 100 uL of solution B. Formation of white cloudy solution or white precipitate indicates the presence of AgNPs.

On or inside cells: Add 100 uL of solution A with 50 uL of the cells that had been exposed to the AgNPs.  Vortex at a speed that can rupture the cells to release absorbed AgNP. Add 50 uL of solution B. Formation of white cloudy solution or white precipitate indicates the presence of AgNPs. Alternatively, for adherent cells on a glass slide, place 5-10 uL of solution A on top of the cells on the slide. Allow to react for 3-5 minutes then add 2-5 uL of solution B. Under a microscope, white precipitate indicates the presence of AgNPs inside or outside the treated cells.


           AuNP Detection Kit(ID# AuNPD)

           This kit is recommended for the qualitative detection of gold nanoparticles in the high nM-uM range in solution or on cells (or bacteria).

In solution: Mix 100 uL of solution Z with 100 uL of the AuNP (OD = 1).  Add 25 uL of solution X then swirl gently until the gray-black AuNP solution almost colorless. Formation of yellowish gray-black precipitate indicates the presence of AuNPs.

On or inside cells: Add 100 uL of solution Z with 50 uL of the cells that had been exposed to the AuNPs.  Add 25 uL of solution X then vortex at a speed that can rupture the cells to release absorbed AuNP. Formation of yellowish gray-black precipitate indicates the presence of AuNPs.  Alternatively, for adherent cells on a glass slide, place 5-10 uL of solution Z on top of the cells on the slide. Add 2-5 uL of solution X and allow to react for 3-5 minutes. Under a microscope, yellowish gray-black precipitate indicates the presence of AuNPs inside or outside the treated cells.      

           



  • Instruments

The instruments offered are small generic instruments that are necessary in a small laboratory. These instruments allows performance of studies that are geared towards the life sciences. To place your order, go to:

Instruments and Reagents

To carry our routine research studies in biotechnology using nanotechnology, there are minimum required instruments and reagents that must be available in the laboratory. These are provided and are available  on this website. To place an order go to:

ZYSTEIN, LLC
Bio and Nano Technology Research Solutions

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